The nature of a particular mass of chakra is known as the Chakra nature. There are many different kinds of chakra natures throughout the Naruto universe and all of them are the basic foundation of many of the universe’s Ninjutsu. The five most basic of these chakra natures are Fire(Katon), Wind(Futon), Lightning(Raiton), Earth(Doton), and Water(Swinton).
Applying one of these five natures to a person then chakra changes the properties of that chakra and doing so is referred to as a natural transformation. Applying both the nature transformation and the shape transformation which changes the chakras form. And a person can perform one of much elemental Ninjutsu. Each of the five chakra natures is strong against one chakra nature and weak against another. Fire is strong against wind, the wind is strong against lightning, lightning is strong against earth, the earth is strong against water, and water is strong against Fire.
However, the chakra of every shinobi in the Naruto series without exception has an affinity for one of these five basic natures. Sometimes affinity of a person’s chakra is up to genetically approved as most members of the Uchiha clan, have an affinity for fire & other times, it’s just a case-by-case thing. Generally, the nature of affinity won’t have any effect on a person’s physical capabilities. But their natural affinity will make it easier for them to learn in Jutsu of whatever element they have an affinity for ninja with a fire affinity can learn fire Jutsu more quickly.
Fire Style Nature
The Fire Release or Fire Style Release is associated with Uchiha Sarutobi Clans. And it is a commonly seen chakra nature among ninjas in the land of fire. Fire release techniques are performed by superheating the chakra present inside of a person’s body. Before releasing the chakra through the mouth in the form of a massive burst of fire. This is not the only way to perform fire release techniques. As Azuma Sarutobi has shown the ability to perform fire Jutsu by igniting things like gunpowder.
The most basic and versatile fire Jutsu is the great fireball technique. The shape & size of the fireball of which can be easily altered by the shape of the technique and can be anything from a neat condensed ball of flame to a chaotic continuous flamethrower that fans out from the user’s mouth.
The lightning release is commonly seen among ninjas present in the village named hidden in the cloud but it is not associated with any particular clan. A person can perform lightning Jutsu by forcing their chakra to vibrate. It takes the shape of a high-frequency alternating current. This current is then condensed into physical electricity which can be used in various different ways. There are a lot of different activities that lightning Jutsu can perform. There is a Raiton technique for pretty any range or situation that Chidori ISO & Chidori Nagashi are the mid-range and Charon & lightning beasts running Jutsu are the examples of long-range Raiton Jutsu.
As a matter of fact, various Raikage have used the lightning release to create a lightning cloak that enhances their physical capabilities and protects them from harns. The lightning chakra can also be infused with a blade to increase that blade cutting power. Lightning chakra tends to move at incredibly high speeds. Raitone techniques tend to be incredibly lethal as well as they are very prone to piercing through a targeted body and causing pretty serious injury.
One thing worth noting about wind release is that Kakashi and Yamato both agreed that it’s a pretty rarely seen release. Wind ninjutsu is often performed by a person forcing their chakra to become incredibly thin and by extension incredibly sharp. These techniques are meant to be employed in mid to close-range combat. But there is a good number of examples of long-range. In wind release, the chakra needs to be made sharp before a wind Jutsu can be performed. Wind release techniques typically deal a lot of cutting damage. Regardless of the scale of this technique, the wind release style will typically always cut up anything in its path.
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Wind style techniques can be used to redirect or outright reflects other projectiles in ninjutsu. Nature has also a winding nature and Kakashi trains him to combine his Rasengan chakra in the wind style. Then a new technique has been learned by naruto that is Rasenshuriken. If anyone comes in contact with Rasenshuriken then it will cut the whole body and look so scary as well. Temari from the hidden in the sand village also has a winding nature.
Water Release Style
There is a location in the Naruto Series where water release is most commonly seen and that place happens to be the village Hidden in the mist. It’s rare to see the water affinity outside of the hidden mist village. It is possible for a person to convert their chakra into tangible water but doing so requires much more skills than manipulating the water.
The water release is likely the most versatile by landslides. Zabuza has shown the ability to turn water into mist and Takata has shown the ability to create bubbles through water ninjutsu. By interacting with other elements water is strong against fire and weak against the earth. Water is weak against earth because the earth’s structures tend to be very strong and rigid which in turn makes them capable of reflecting in resisting the force backing water technique.
Earth release is commonly in the village hidden in the stone and it is pretty similar to the water release. It is heavier to focus on manipulating earth. But it is possible for shinobi to turn their chakra into earth. Since the users of the earth release generally have to rely on manipulating the landscape in order to fully use their abilities.
Ohno and various other Suchikage have shown their ability to manipulate the weights of people and objects. Yamato also has earth nature and he helps Naruto when the Kakashi was absent.